Regionalism[ edit ] Regionalismor Regional Trade Agreements RTAare trade policies and agreements that are crafted by the nations in a region for the purposes of increasing international trade in the area. RTAs have been described by supporters as a means of increasing free trade with the goal of eventually merging into larger, either bilateral or multilateral, trade deals. The more relatively local area of RTAs are useful in resolving trade issues as well without causing gridlock in other trade agreements. Critics of RTAs say that they are a hindrance to the negotiation of trade because they can be lopsided or unfairly beneficial to one side over the other sides, particularly if some of the participants are nations that are still in development.
Prehistory[ edit ] Trade originated with human communication in prehistoric times. Trading was the main facility of prehistoric people, who bartered goods and services from each other before the innovation of modern-day currency.
Peter Watson dates the history of long-distance commerce from circayears ago. Apart from traditional self-sufficiencytrading became a principal facility of prehistoric people, who bartered what they had for goods and services from each other. The caduceus has been used today as the symbol of commerce  with which Mercury has traditionally been associated.
Trade is believed to have taken place throughout much of recorded human history.
There is evidence of the exchange of obsidian and flint during the stone age. Trade in obsidian is believed to have taken place in Guinea from 17, BCE. Materials used for creating jewelry were traded with Egypt since BCE.
Long-range trade routes first appeared in the 3rd millennium BCE, when Sumerians in Mesopotamia traded with the Harappan civilization of the Indus Valley. The Phoenicians were noted sea traders, traveling across the Mediterranean Seaand as far north as Britain for sources of tin to manufacture bronze.
For this purpose they established trade colonies the Greeks called emporia. Roman commerce allowed its empire to flourish and endure. The latter Roman Republic and the Pax Romana of the Roman empire produced a stable and secure transportation network that enabled the shipment of trade goods without fear of significant piracyas Rome had become the sole effective sea power in the Mediterranean with the conquest of Egypt and the near east.
Free trade between states was stifled by the need for strict internal controls via taxation to maintain security within the treasury of the sovereign, which nevertheless enabled the maintenance of a modicum of civility within the structures of functional community life.
Some trade did occur in the west. For instance, Radhanites were a medieval guild or group the precise meaning of the word is lost to history of Jewish merchants who traded between the Christians in Europe and the Muslims of the Near East.
It had a fixed worth of 8, cacao seeds, which were also used as currency. There is evidence of established maritime trade with the cultures of northwestern South America and the Caribbean. Middle Ages[ edit ] During the Middle Ages, commerce developed in Europe by trading luxury goods at trade fairs.
Wealth became converted into movable wealth or capital. Banking systems developed where money on account was transferred across national boundaries. Hand to hand markets became a feature of town life, and were regulated by town authorities.
Western Europe established a complex and expansive trade network with cargo ships being the main workhorse for the movement of goods, Cogs and Hulks are two examples of such cargo ships. The English port city of Bristol traded with peoples from what is modern day Iceland, all along the western coast of France, and down to what is now Spain.
During the Middle Ages, Central Asia was the economic center of the world. They were the main caravan merchants of Central Asia.
From the 8th to the 11th century, the Vikings and Varangians traded as they sailed from and to Scandinavia. Vikings sailed to Western Europe, while Varangians to Russia. The Hanseatic League was an alliance of trading cities that maintained a trade monopoly over most of Northern Europe and the Balticbetween the 13th and 17th centuries.
Prior to this, the flow of spice into Europe from India was controlled by Islamic powers, especially Egypt. The spice trade was of major economic importance and helped spur the Age of Discovery in Europe. Spices brought to Europe from the Eastern world were some of the most valuable commodities for their weight, sometimes rivaling gold.
In the 16th century, the Seventeen Provinces were the centre of free trade, imposing no exchange controlsand advocating the free movement of goods. Trade in the East Indies was dominated by Portugal in the 16th century, the Dutch Republic in the 17th century, and the British in the 18th century.
Danzig in the 17th century, a port of the Hanseatic League. It criticised Mercantilismand argued that economic specialisation could benefit nations just as much as firms. Since the division of labour was restricted by the size of the market, he said that countries having access to larger markets would be able to divide labour more efficiently and thereby become more productive.
Smith said that he considered all rationalisations of import and export controls "dupery", which hurt the trading nation as a whole for the benefit of specific industries.
Inthe Dutch East India Companyformerly the world's largest company, became bankruptpartly due to the rise of competitive free trade. In Principles of Political Economy and Taxation Ricardo advanced the doctrine still considered the most counterintuitive in economics: When an inefficient producer sends the merchandise it produces best to a country able to produce it more efficiently, both countries benefit.`There is a clear-cut difference between policy advocacy by 'economic intellectualism' and 'bandwagon politics'.
This remarkable book written by one of the leading international trade theorists belongs to the previous category.'. Historical Note. Benjamin Franklin’s catalog of books, first published in , was the beginning of what would eventually become America’s culture of mail order and trade catalog advertising.
However, the trade catalog would not become an advertising phenomenon until the late 19th century. Governments implement a variety of policies targeting international trade—both imports and exports—and they do so for a variety of reasons.
In this chapter, we examine the principal instruments of trade policy used by modern governments. Geoff Jehle examines the primary instruments of national trade policy, often termed commercial policy, including quantitative restrictions (e.g., quotas), tariffs, non-tariff barriers, and export taxes.
Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) The Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) is a global network of researchers and policy makers conducting quantitative analysis of international policy issues. GTAP is coordinated by the Center for Global Trade Analysis in Purdue University's Department of .
He focuses on the implications of the various policy instruments for aggregate national social welfare; the distribution of rents among various groups, notably, producers, consumers, and the government; and the relative value of using trade policy instruments versus other means of government intervention to achieve various policy objectives.