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Many authors may not be aware of these ethical conundrums, let alone have a plan for addressing them. Ethics is not a stagnant concept. As research methodologies and research questions evolve, new ethical issues in publishing arise. This section contains a description of several issues broadly relevant to the publishing practice of genetic counselors, particularly as students or recent graduates.
However, it is important for genetic counselors-as-authors to keep abreast of ethical issues relevant to their own work. Ethical issues particularly relevant to writing for publication, include: Authorship Determination Consider the following situation: At the beginning of the project, her supervisor promised her that she would have first authorship on any manuscripts based on the project.
However, when the time came to write the paper, the student procrastinated. The supervisor decided the only way to salvage the paper was to totally rewrite it herself. Now the supervisor thinks that she deserves to be the first author.
Are there guidelines that might be implemented in advance to handle this kind of situation? This complex situation may be all too familiar for many supervisors and students.
It raises issues about valuing contributions to the publication process, the power differential between supervisors and students, determining when renegotiation of authorship is warranted, and setting expectations and priorities up front. Whenever manuscripts are authored by more than one individual, order of authorship should be negotiated as early in the process as possible.
Only individuals who have actually contributed to the work should be listed as authors. In the sciences, the first and last authors typically are the individuals that made the greatest contributions to the project Laflin et al. Student authors pose a special situation. Doctoral students usually are the first authors of papers based on their dissertation research Nguyen and Nguyen Thompson recommends that when there is any question as to who made the primary contribution, the student should receive higher authorship.
His recommendation helps to protect the person who has less power in the situation.
In those situations, some authors contend that their involvement should be creative and intellectual in order to warrant authorship; otherwise, student input can be credited in an acknowledgement section Fine and Kurdek ; Holaday and Yost ; Thompson Negotiating authorship is an important step that should begin in the initial stages of a project.
The key is to remember that authorship is negotiated. Questions to consider throughout this negotiation process include: Who had the original idea for the basis of the publication?
Who designed and conducted the study that generated the data? Who will write most of the first draft of the paper? Students should maintain early and on-going communication with their co-authors about their investment of time and efforts and the outcomes of those efforts Sandler and Russell However, scholarly contribution is more important than actual time and effort expended when determining authorship.
For more information regarding authorship determination, it may be useful to review guidelines for discussing and clarifying authorship order Gibelman and Gelman or developing individualized contracts for research collaboration Stith et al. These guidelines also may be useful for initiating discussion of authorship as part of the curriculum in genetic counseling training programs.Publish your dissertation online,online publishing service which will make your Thesis available to research scholars around the Globe,Authors are invited to.
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