This story has many variants, religious and secular, scientific, economic and mystic.
Indian Muslim leaders speaking up on behalf of an Ottoman caliphate might appear to represent a global Muslim unity, but such a conclusion would be a mistake. Their success in getting the meeting with Wilson owed much to their sacrifice as soldiers in the British army fighting and defeating the German-Ottoman alliance.
Edwin Montagu, Secretary of State for British-ruled India, arranged the meeting because he believed that the British empire, as the biggest Muslim empire in the world, had a moral responsibility to listen to the Indian Myth and the modern world essay case for the preservation of the Ottoman caliphate.
Several Indian Hindu leaders joined the meeting, making clear their solidarity with their fellow Indian Muslim brethren and their support for the Ottoman caliphate. This conversation at the Paris Peace Conference in does not reveal a clash between an Islamic world and a Western world.
It reveals one complex and interdependent world. The Muslims were loyal supporters of the multi-faith British empire, cooperating with Hindus, and had fought against the Muslim soldiers of the Ottoman empire during the First World War. They did not see Westerners as any kind of enemy, and made their case for the Ottoman caliphate according to international norms about national self-determination and imperial peace.
Since the Iranian Revolution ofWestern journalists and radical Islamists popularised the idea. In their view, contemporary Pan-Islamism draws on ancient Muslim ideals in pursuit of restoring a pristine religious purity.
According to this account, Pan-Islamism is a reactionary movement, in thrall to ancient traditions and classical Islamic law. This Pan-Islamism not only survives but thrives in the contemporary world, and is a civilisational artefact deeply at odds with modern times.
It began with the advent of Islam, in the 7th century, and has continued virtually to the present day.
It has consisted of a long series of attacks and counterattacks, jihads and crusades, conquests and reconquests.
Yet, contrary to this dominant view of an eternal clash with the Christian West, Pan-Islamism is in fact relatively new, and not so exceptional. Closely related to Pan-Africanism and Pan-Asianism, it emerged in the s as a response to the iniquities of European imperialism.
The idea of an ancient clash between the Muslim World and the Christian World is a dangerous and modern myth. It relies on fabricated misrepresentations of separate Islamic and Western geopolitical and civilisational unities.
Pan-Islamists in the age of empire did not have to convince fellow Muslims about the global unity of their co-religionists.
By racialising their Muslim subjects with references to their religious identity, colonisers created the conceptual foundations of modern Muslim unity.
Like Pan-Africanists and Pan-Asianists, the first Pan-Islamists were intellectuals who wanted to counter the slights, humiliations and exploitation of Western colonial domination. They did not necessarily want to reject the imperial world or the reality of empires. Like Pan-Africanists and Pan-Asianists, Pan-Islamists emphasised that European empires discriminated against Africans, Asians and Muslims, both within empires and in international affairs.
All three challenged European racism and colonial domination, and promised a better and freer world for the majority of human beings on Earth. European colonial officers began to worry about a potential Muslim revolt when they saw how the modern technologies of printing, steamships and the telegraph were creating new links among diverse Muslim populations, helping them to assert a critique of racism and discrimination.
Yet there were no Pan-Islamic revolts against colonialism from the s to the s. The alleged threat of Pan-Islamism made its first notable appearance in the West during the First World War, in part because the Ottoman and German empires promoted it in their war propaganda.
By the s, with the fading of the colonial world and its replacement by a world of independent nation-states, the political projects of Pan-Islamism, Pan-Africanism and Pan-Asianism had almost disappeared. They had, however, won many of the intellectual battles against racism, defeated colonial arguments of white supremacy, and helped to end European imperial rule.
Disappointments about the failure of Africa, Asia and the Muslim world to become comparable in equality and freedom to the West also contributed to the declining status of the pan-nationalisms. By the s, African and African-American intellectuals grew more pessimistic about the key Pan-Africanist dream of gaining racial equality for black people in the modern world, and making the whole of Africa prosperous and free.
The Pan-African vision of uniting newly independent, weak African nations to create the necessary synergy of a federative global power and give them both liberty and prosperity has not materialised.
Although there is still an international organisation — the African Union — it is ineffective, and far from achieving the goals of Pan-Africanism.
The hopes of the Pan-Africanist generation, from Dubois to Frantz Fanon, for a future decolonised Africa remain a lost project for the next generation.Ancient Greek Influence on the Modern World.
Custom Ancient Greek Influence on the Modern World Essay Writing Service || Ancient Greek Influence on the Modern World Essay samples, help Ancient Greek society is the oldest civilization that has most antiquity of sophisticated architecture, most democratic government concept, and from medicine-hippocratic to math-euclidean educational .
This book is a 'Must Have' for those seriously interested in the academic side of the Martial Arts. The 18 or so articles gathered, explore and enlighten the subject matter from the historical to the psychological; and include varied subjects from the Olympics through the Art of Kendo to Bruce Lee, and more.
Myth Essay Examples. 14 total results. A Comparison of Beowulf to Any Modern Novel or Movie. 1, words. 4 pages. A Study on the Littleton Killings and Trench Coat Mafia. 1, words. 3 pages. An Overview of the Myth, Dragons in the United States of America.
words. 1 page. Myth and the Modern World - Since the beginning of time, people have been searching the universe looking for answers to the burning questions about what “it” all means.
By looking to the past, we find parallels that help put our own modern lives into perspective. - In the essay The Myth of Sisyphus, Albert Camus attempts to give answers. Jun 17, · MYTH 2: Between , and , girls are pressed into sexual slavery each year in the United States.
FACTS: This sensational claim is . Myth Essay. foundation of almost every culture in the world has a creation myth explaining how the wonders of the earth came to be.
These myths have a powerful influence over the people’s culture, and the way they think about their surroundings. Creation myths usually begin with the theme of birth; birth represents new life and a new beginning.