The quantity and diversity of artistic works during the period do not fit easily into categories for interpretation, but some loose generalizations may be drawn. At the opening of the century, baroque forms were still popular, as they would be at the end. They were partially supplanted, however, by a general lightening in the rococo motifs of the early s.
The arguments in the two essays overlap a great deal. In fact, The Open Society began as a chapter for Poverty. Yet there is a difference in emphasis. The Open Society, a much longer and, according to Popper, a more important work, included in-depth discussion of historicism and the methods of the social sciences.
But it also featured an inquiry into the psychological and historical origins of totalitarianism, which he located in the nexus of a set of appealing but, he argued, false ideas.
Open versus Closed Societies According to Popper, totalitarianism was not unique to the 20th century. But reactionary forces were unnerved by the instability and rapid social change that an open society had unleashed.
Socrates was indicted on charges of corrupting the youth and introducing new gods. In contrast, the individualism, freedom and personal responsibility that open societies necessarily engender leave many feeling isolated and anxious, but this anxiety, Popper said, must be born if we are to enjoy the greater benefits of living in an open society: Popper charged that Plato emerged as the philosophical champion of the closed society and in the process laid the groundwork for totalitarianism.
Betraying the open and critical temper of his mentor Socrates, in his Republic Plato devised an elaborate system that would arrest all political and social change and turn philosophy into an enforcer, rather than a challenger, of authority.
It would also reverse the tide of individualism and egalitarianism that had emerged in democratic Athens, establishing a hierarchical system in which the freedom and rights of the individual would be sacrificed to the collective needs of society. Spartan society focused almost exclusively on two goals: Toward these ends, the Spartan constitution sought to create a hive-like, martial society that always favored the needs of the collective over the individual and required a near total control over its citizenry.
This included a primitive eugenics, in which newborn infants deemed insufficiently vigorous were tossed into a pit of water.
Spartan males judged healthy enough to merit life were separated from their families at a young age and provided an education consisting mainly of military training.
George Berkeley, Bishop of Cloyne, was one of the great philosophers of the early modern period. He was a brilliant critic of his predecessors, particularly Descartes, Malebranche, and Locke. John Locke (b. , d. ) was a British philosopher, Oxford academic and medical researcher. Locke’s monumental An Essay Concerning Human Understanding () is one of the first great defenses of modern empiricism and concerns itself with determining the limits of human understanding in respect to a wide spectrum of topics. It thus tells us in some detail what one can legitimately claim. A page in the Encyclopedia of Marxism. McCarthyism. In the early s, while the citizens of the USSR and its allies were blockaded and threatened with nuclear annihilation and the people of the countries of Latin America, Africa, the Middle East and Asia were sabotaged, bombed, invaded, poisoned and assassinated while brutal .
The training produced fearsome warriors who were indifferent to suffering, submissive to authority, and unwaveringly loyal to the city. Fighting for the city was an honor granted solely to the male citizenry, while the degrading toil of cultivating the land was the lot reserved to an enslaved tribe of fellow Greeks, the helots.
Rigid censorship was imposed on the citizenry, as well as laws that strictly limited contact with foreigners. Under this system, Sparta became a dominant military power in ancient Greece, but, unsurprisingly, made no significant contributions to the arts and sciences. It was no coincidence, he said, that the Nazis and other modern-day totalitarians were also inspired by the Spartans.
These ideas were holism, essentialism, and historicism.
Holism may be defined as the view that adequate understanding of certain kinds of entities requires understanding them as a whole. This is often held to be true for biological and social systems, for example, an organism, an ecosystem, an economy, or a culture.
For instance, some philosophers argue that human consciousness is an emergent phenomenon whose properties cannot be explained solely by the properties of the physical components nerve cells, neurotransmitters, and so forth that comprise the human brain. Similarly, those who advocate a holistic approach to social inquiry argue that social entities cannot be reduced to the properties of the individuals that comprise them.
That is, they reject methodological individualism and support methodological holism, as Popper called it.John Locke (b. , d. ) was a British philosopher, Oxford academic and medical researcher. Locke’s monumental An Essay Concerning Human Understanding () is one of the first great defenses of modern empiricism and concerns itself with determining the limits of human understanding in respect to a wide spectrum of topics.
It thus tells . Idealism: Idealism, in philosophy, any view that stresses the central role of the ideal or the spiritual in the interpretation of experience. It may hold that the world or reality exists essentially as spirit or consciousness, that abstractions and laws are more fundamental in reality than sensory things.
Karl Popper: Political Philosophy. Among philosophers, Karl Popper () is best known for his contributions to the philosophy of science and epistemology. A page in the Encyclopedia of Marxism.
McCarthyism. In the early s, while the citizens of the USSR and its allies were blockaded and threatened with nuclear annihilation and the people of the countries of Latin America, Africa, the Middle East and Asia were sabotaged, bombed, invaded, poisoned and assassinated while brutal . The three men are dipping their fingers in a vat of vinegar and tasting it; one man reacts with a sour expression, another reacts with a bitter expression, and the third reacts with a sweet expression.
Consciousness. Explaining the nature of consciousness is one of the most important and perplexing areas of philosophy, but the concept is notoriously ambiguous.