City and 15th century amsterdam

This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Significance In the history of mechanical engineering, it is commonly believed that transporting huge stones with sliding sledges hauled by men did not occur in ancient China, because there were well-developed wheeled vehicles in China around B.

City and 15th century amsterdam

As such, it is no stranger to the prospect of imminent destruction. The 30,volume collection mostly contains manuscripts written by people who fled the Inquisition on the Iberian Peninsula or their descendants. The oldest document is a copy of the Mishneh Torah, the code of Jewish religious law authored by Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon, or Maimonides, that dates to Ets Haim as a whole faced a similar fate — or worse — inwhen the Nazis invaded the Netherlands and had 75 percent of its Jews murdered.

The collection was discovered there, with light damage, after the war. After the war, the books were returned to Amsterdam. But the Dutch Jewish community lacked the resources to preserve the collection. Library curators determined that the Ets Haim building would need to be renovated thoroughly to ensure the proper conditions, so in the books were sent to Israel.

Following extensive renovations to the building, which dates tothe collection returned home in Inusing advanced imaging equipment, the National Library of Israel has partnered with Ets Haim to digitize its entire catalog.

City and 15th century amsterdam now the partners will make everything available online — and for free. For added security, they are stored on several servers worldwide. It is open to the public only a handful of times each year during guided tours that typically need to be booked in advance.

Accredited scholars may access the library year-round. Cnaan Liphshiz Warncke said the restrictive policy is meant to protect the books, which are at risk of being damaged by humidity and changes in temperature. These Jewish immigrants were pioneers in philosophy, innovation, trade and medicine, she said.

Though his book is secular in essence, Mendes was a prominent member of the Jewish congregation as well as an insurance broker. Other Sephardic Jews used the relative tolerance they encountered in the Netherlands to resume the study of Jewish texts that had been largely stunted throughout Europe following the Inquisition.

Ets Haim is a testament to the cultural revival they led. Such explosive publications were kept at Ets Haim as manuscripts and were printed rarely, Warncke said, so as to limit their distribution and avoid angering Dutch society. Cnaan Liphshiz This culture of debate among the Jewish community, as well as its exposure to different religions and ideas that an international trading hub provided, produced heretics like the philosophers Baruch Spinoza — who was excommunicated by Jews for his atheist musings, possibly because they also offended Christians — and Uriel da Costa.

There is no way of knowing for sure, but both men who died in andrespectively may well have frequented Ets Haim to conduct their research, Warncke confirmed.

Another controversial figure did leave an indelible mark on the library: Shabbetai Zevi, the Turkey-born eccentric Jewish luminary who divided the Jewish world with his claim that he was the Messiah.

Under duress, he converted to Islam in In the three-page Hebrew-language document, they ask for word from their messiah and recount the story of Shabtai Raphael, who was banned from the city over his support for Shabbetai Zevi.

The letter never reached the self-proclaimed messiah, probably because he had already converted to Islam when the envoy sent with it reached the Ottoman Empire. Whereas these documents are well researched, new discoveries are always being made, said Warncke. That can lead to more knowledge.

There are many secrets still to be unlocked. On Wednesday night, he'll attend hisSoho House Amsterdam is located in the Bungehuis building on Spuistraat. This year, the Soho House Group has opened members’ clubs in New York’s DUMBO and White City, West London – in addition to its already-busy portfolio in both cities.

(Still to come in is Little Beach House Barcelona. History of Medieval and Renaissance Europe: Primary Documents. Search maps by year or by city. (15th to 19th centuries; facsimiles) (Scroll down to Outstanding 15th-century church book) Digitised by the British Library in its online gallery, Turning the Pages.

Laozi and Confucius's philosophies filter through every part of the Chinese thinking including art. Daoism (meaning "the way", a journey that allows the pilgrim to wander .

City and 15th century amsterdam

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H. Reade. Glassware - Midth to midth century: A glass industry was already established near Venice in the 7th century, and vessel glass was made there by the last quarter of the 10th century.

In the glass furnaces were removed to the neighbouring island of Murano to remove the risk of fire from the city. Although Venice had constant contact with the . Tools and toys. A life story approach to (re)presenting Amsterdam children in the 20th century.


Speaker: Anne Marie de Wildt. Session: Walking in the city's streets: The role of the city museum in the invention of urban past The spatial organisation of markets and fairs in the city, 15th to 17th centuries; The Street and Square: Public and.

History of Europe as a Supranational Region: Primary Documents - EuroDocs