Topics include major events, persons, and issues spanning the period from the African heritage to contemporary times. Students survey the evolution of African American expressive culture in music, literature, film, art, and dance. The course includes lectures, discussions, and video presentations. Besides being the first rap artist to be inducted into the Songwriters Hall of Fame and holding the record for the most number one albums by a solo artist, JAY-Z's body of work stands as a monumental contribution to American culture.
The authors would additionally like to thank all of the participants in the Women in and War and at War Conference held at the University of Warwick and additionally hosted by the Open University Law School and Aberystwyth University. The feedback gained at this conference was valuable to the completion of this project.
Abstract This Article will discuss the reasons for the shift from the inclusion of women as active participants in the Syrian revolution to their exclusion and marginalization throughout the conflict and during the recent Geneva II peace negotiations.
It will address how the lack of participation of women in such formal negotiations is hindering the peace process, drawing on the role of women, more generally and historically, in conflict resolution.
The Article will provide best practices from prior conflicts and ways in which policymakers can improve participation of women in the peace process in Syria. The re-inclusion of Syrian women is possible, despite the ongoing conflict. Based on our research, evidence shows that Syrian women are currently participating in informal conflict resolution processes, despite their exclusion in formal processes.
By relying on past successes of women in previous peace processes and with the support of the international and local communities, women can move from informal processes into formal peace negotiations in Syria and elsewhere.
At leastpeople killed—more than one every 10 minutes. Since the outbreak of hostilities in Syria, the degradation of violence and stability has only increased with time.
With a Security Council that appears to be paralyzed on the issue and with the re-election of Bashar al-Assad on June 4,many wonder when or if peace will ever come again to Syria. Mapping the Conflict 3Syria: According to the United Nations U.
High Commission for Refugees, over four million refugees have fled the country since the conflict began in More than fifty percent of those refugees are women and nearly seventy-five percent are children.
In April when Kofi Annan struggled to promote a peace plan that provided for a ceasefire—it failed. After chemical weapons attacks in Damascus in Augustthe U. No woman was present during the conference—neither on behalf of the Syrian government, nor the Syrian opposition, nor the U.
In this Article we will demonstrate and argue that until women have a seat at the negotiation table and the voices of women are heard, any peace agreement reached in Syria will not be a lasting one. Historically, Syrian women have often been involved, albeit in a limited role, in societal change within Syria.
During the Arab Spring, women rose up across the Arab world, including Syria, to protest for change. Although women were arrested during the initial protests, many continued to flock to the streets and, even still, encouraged more women to get involved.
The various roles that women play in conflict are not as obvious as those of their male counterparts, but women often affect change in ways that many men do not even realize. Peace agreements and reconstruction work better when women are involved in the peacebuilding process.
Bringing women to the peace table improves the quality of agreements reached, enhancing the chances that they are successfully implemented. Only recently have there been peace negotiations that reached this thirty percent benchmark.
If the thirty percent quota is a true U. Research is needed to determine the best ways to involve women in the formal negotiations, as well as to encourage their involvement at the local level.
A deeper analysis must be made considering the participation of women in peace processes from previous conflicts in order to better incorporate women in these processes in Syria.
Part I of this Article will briefly discuss the importance of women being involved in the peace process by drawing on the extensive literature in this field.
It will also define the key processes that exist in conflict resolution literature. Part II will detail the various roles that women have played in Syria throughout modern history, ranging from before the Arab Spring and leading into the current conflict and recent peace negotiations.
Finally, Part IV will draw conclusions from this comparative analysis in an effort to provide best practices to increase participation of Syrian women in the peacebuilding process. The negotiation of a peace agreement is considered a milestone and a decisive moment to determine the future of any war-torn country.
It can also be extremely difficult to come by, particularly in multi-party non-international armed conflicts, such as Syria. The primary goal of any peace agreement is to find an acceptable compromise between the interests and positions of the warring groups in armed conflict. A peace agreement also establishes the legal and political framework for the future of any state.
The rights of women, especially, are particularly vulnerable at this stage since the future of the state depends on what is negotiated in the peace agreement. Politicians and military advisors, both groups comprised of mostly men, generally negotiate these peace agreements.
This study, submitted by the Secretary-General, was undertaken pursuant to S. Herein lies the problem—this elite, predominantly male group accounts for the reason why there is so little consideration for a female perspective on peace development and implementation.
The passage of U. The Resolution reaffirms the importance of women in both the prevention and resolution of armed conflicts and calls for increased participation of women in the peacebuilding process.Chapter 9: Educational reconstruction.
Background. The Second World War, which began in September , quickly had serious effects on the country's children: by the end of the year a million of them had been evacuated from the major cities, having had no schooling for four months.
The aim of persuasion is to change the attitudes and associated behaviour of another party in line with one’s own beliefs or purpose. Rhetoric, the art of persuasion, is the practice and study ofthe linguistic resources which help speakers to achieve their objectives.
Diversity means people of different sexes, ages that all have their own different experiences, attitudes, beliefs and preferences. Equality means treating everyone fairly and making equal opportunities available.
Inclusion involves making the individual the centre of their life, involving them in. A. Introduction. Contents Index End. In their discourses on government, Plato and Aristotle discussed all those problems which were important to an Attic citizen if he were to understand and order his timberdesignmag.com encyclopædic approach was also used in theories of government that were developed in the Middle Ages (Rehm L/).
Online Exclusives Archive () “The Palestinian Authority held a free, democratic election in ” “Israel is building the security fence as part of a land grab to control the West Bank and prevent the establishment of a Palestinian state.”.
We often see the 3 words equality, diversity and inclusion banded about rather like throwaway phrases. But what do they mean? I have had an interesting few months delivering equality, diversity and inclusion training to a variety of people in organisations.
Many of the participants who have turned up at the training have a different perception of what each word means.