In part, this is because some of the definitions found in the scientific literature, including textbooks and popularizations of evolutionary theory, use technical terms that do not seem to convey to the public that evolution explains the diversity of living forms. In part, it is also because the popular idea of evolution as it is found in dictionaries, science fiction, and philosophical potboilers is a holdover of concepts that have long been abandoned in the biological sciences, if not in theology or in the "science" of popular media.
Success of positive psychology Popular press: See the annotated bibliography A dedicated journal: See the annotated bibliography section C2 Handbooks: Seligman and Csikszentmihalyi Chao, ; Chovan. Understanding well-being and optimal functioning: Psychological Inquiry, 22 Replies: Clearly, that is the mark of a powerful, or at least powerfully compelling, idea.
For example, in one of his first publications on his new venture he introduces a presidential task force on prevention that will ultimately sponsor a special issue on prevention for the American Psychologist edited by Csikszentmihalyi, "it will ask what psychology can do to nurture highly talented children [italics added]" Seligman, a, p.
In this column, Seligman then goes on to ask how we can prevent problems by promoting the competence of individuals. Much of the task of prevention will be to create a science of human strength whose mission will be to foster these virtues in young people" Seligman, a, p.
The positive social science of the 21st century will have as a useful side effect the possibility of prevention of the serious mental illnesses; for there are a set of human strengths that most likely buffer against mental courage, optimism, interpersonal skill, work ethic, hope, responsibility, future-mindedness, honesty and perseverance, to name several.
But it will have as its direct effect a scientific understanding of the practice of civic virtue and of the pursuit of the best things in life" Seligman, b, p. The focus on highly talented children also disappears. Here is a progress report on the three first steps" Seligman, c, p. Which will be most fruitful for a taxonomy?
The DSMs categorize the mental disorders for the purpose of measurement and treatment. Is there an array of human strengths——the "sanities"—that are the opposite of the disorders?
Beyond those qualities provided by genetic inheritance, what would responsible parents most want to bestow on their children? To assess across time, culture and political systems how closely a people came to the good life, what set of question would we ask?
If we wanted to know, as we aged and accomplished or failed, how close we were to the good life, what would we ask ourselves?
Rather than trying to agree on the elusive dimensions of tile good life, can we think instead of an array of paradigmatic "good lives," e. Do our cultural and religious writings about self—actualization, about wisdom and about creating an art of life yield a taxonomy?
We can show the world what actions lead to well-being, to positive individuals, to flourishing communities, and to a just society" Seligman,p.
For it is my belief that no medication or technique of therapy holds as much promise for serving as a buffer against mental illness as does human strength. Fredrickson introduced the "Broaden and Build" theory in order to account for what positive emotions do.
They broaden the breadth of thought—action repertoires and build enduring physical, intellectual and social resources Frederickson, Fredrickson advances a new theory describing the form and function of joy, interest, contentment, and love.
In her new approach, she rejects two former common assumptions about emotion: The first is the presumption that emotions must necessarily yield specific action tendencies".
Some positive emotions seem instead to spark changes primarily in cognitive activity, with changes in physical activity if any following from these cognitive changes" Fredrickson,p.
Thus, positive emotions "prompt individuals to discard time—tested or automatic everyday behavioral scripts and to pursue novel, creative, and often unscripted paths of thought and action" Fredrickson,p. Howard [see Kendler, ], a professor emeritus of psychology at the University of California at Santa Barbara, says he is troubled by any science that sets itself up as a moral authority.
Kendler rejects positive approaches to psychology and concludes that a negative conceptualization of mental health is necessary to serve the needs of society and meet the demands of science. Seligman says that although he recognizes standards may vary across cultures, he believes in universals.
At the individual level it is about positive personal traits—the capacity for love and vocation, courage, interpersonal skill, aesthetic sensibility, perseverance, forgiveness, originality, future mindedness, high talent, and wisdom. At the group level it is about the civic virtues and the institutions that move individuals toward better citizenship: This manifesto was originally created during the Akumal 1 meeting in Januaryand was revised following the Akumal 2 meeting in January Definition Positive Psychology is the scientific study of optimal human functioning.
It aims to discover and promote the factors that allow individuals and communities to thrive. The positive psychology movement represents a new commitment on the part of research psychologists to focus attention upon the sources of psychological health, thereby going beyond prior emphases upon disease and disorder.
Goals To meet these objectives we must consider optimal functioning at multiple levels, including biological, experiential, personal, relational, institutional, cultural, and global.Evolutionary Psychology.
Evolutionary psychology uses evolutionary theory to explain similarities in psychological characteristics. According to evolutionary psychologists, patterns of behavior have evolved through natural selection, in the same way that physical characteristics have evolved.
EVOLUTION TRENDS The "INFORMATION AGE" & its Evolution into the "Holographic Age" Challenges & Realistic Goals For Survival & Creating A Desirable Future.
Why do we have dreams and what do they mean? These questions have for centuries been the subject of a debate that has recently become the center of a heated controversy.
Justice is the legal or philosophical theory by which fairness is administered. As with most philosophically-driven disciplines, the concept of justice differs in every timberdesignmag.com early theory of justice was set out by the Ancient Greek philosopher Plato in his work The timberdesignmag.comtes of divine command theory say that justice issues from God.
he principle of evolutionary opportunism is closely related to evolutionary history and to the effects of contingency (some authors refer to the concept of opportunism as "the principle of continuity") ().Descent with gradual modification means that new organisms can only use and modify what they initially are given; they are slaves to their history.
An approach concerned with identifying the unique combination of traits and other characteristics that best accounts for the personality of a single individual.
It is an in-depth analysis of one individual and the dimensions relevant to that person's personality.