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Moreover, if the level of arousal were too low or too high poor performance would ensue. However, the Inverted-U Hypothesis was seen by some as being far too simplistic, and a number of researchers began to question its validity.
The Multidimensional Theory of Anxiety Martens et al. Despite offering a much-improved explanation of the 'underlying mechanics' of competitive anxiety, both descriptions are fundamentally in conflict with each other, and are not devoid of their respective critics.
The aim of the essay is to firstly underline the foundations and basic principles of each of the theories, and secondly, to examine the criticisms that have been levied upon them. Finally, the essay offers conclusions and recommendations as to the future of the most plausible explanation of competitive anxiety in sport.
Introduction Competitive state-anxiety usually follows a pattern of subjective feelings of tension and inadequacy, combined with heightened arousal of the autonomic nervous system, e. The intensity and duration of the anxious state alternates according to; the amount of stressful stimuli the athlete encounters, and the period of subjective threat created by the stimuli e.
Originally, it was thought that the connection between performance and arousal was an uncomplicated Inverted-U Yerkes and Dodson,i. However, dissatisfied with the simplistic nature of the Inverted-U Hypothesis Yerkes and Dodson,many sport psychologists began to question its validity for a number of conceptual and methodological reasons.
Not least of all the question of whether the hypothesis proposes a correlational or causal relationship between arousal and performance e. This paved the way for a number of new theories and models that endeavoured to address the inadequacies of the Inverted-U at measuring and conceptualising competitive anxiety.
The Multidimensional Theory of Anxiety Primarily, the theory is based on the assumption that competitive anxiety is comprised of two distinct parts; a cognitive component, and a somatic component, both having dissimilar effects on performance. Hence, theoretically, the components can be manipulated independently of one another.
The cognitive component has been defined as the negative expectations and concerns about one's ability to perform and the possible consequences of failure. The culmination of the recognition of a Multidimensional Theory of Anxiety, in relation to the field of sport psychology, came about through Martens et al.
In addition, Martens et al. Administering their CSAI-2 to a selection of athletes, forty-eight hours, twenty-four hours, two hours, and five minutes before a critical event, they affirmed that the cognitive component staid stable before the start, but the somatic component began to increase prior to the onset of the event see fig.
They found a relationship between the two sub-components to such an extent that there were positive effects related to cognitive anxiety in the days before a crucial event when somatic anxiety was at a low level.
In addition, they found a combination of both negative and positive effects for somatic anxiety for a range of performance related activities shortly before the crucial event when cognitive anxiety was at an elevated level. Before the recognition of Martens et al.
For example, through factor analysis, Hamiltonand later Bussisolated and classified the anxiety-related psychiatric illness sub-components of psychic and somatic anxiety. Their supposition was bolstered by their proposal that they could effectively negate either form of anxiety sub-component through selective relaxation therapy, i.
However, their attempt at illustrating a strong relationship between the two sub-components was not hailed as a complete success, as the high correlations found from six studies demonstrated.
Nevertheless, later attempts with a modified WEI achieved lower and more acceptable correlations e. As Hardy explains, " Thom's central theorem was that, with certain qualifications, all naturally occurring discontinuities could be classified as being of the 'same type' as i.
A year later Zeeman took the conceptual framework of catastrophe a step further by drawing attention to it's potential relevance and utilisation within the behavioural sciences. This was not without criticism; based upon the argument that effective testing using experimental methodology would not be possible e.
Nevertheless, with the aid of a tangible model, Zeeman demonstrated the effectiveness of the cusp catastrophe, leading the way for others to implement catastrophe models to the appropriate behavioural sciences.
When measured by heart rate, both follow identical temporal patterns to, for example, a critical competitive event. Nevertheless, there are a number of differences between the two in relation to their effect on performance. It has been reasoned that physiological arousal may have a direct effect upon performance through the suppression of crucial cognitive and physiological resources e.
Additionally, physiological arousal may also cause an athlete to interpret their physiological state as either negative or positive, inadvertently altering their performance e.
Somatic anxiety, on the other hand, is believed to effect performance only if the extent of the somatic response is so large that the athlete becomes excessively concerned and distracted with their perceived physiological state e. Nevertheless, that will only occur when the individual is exhibiting low cognitive state anxiety, e.
Alternatively, a catastrophe will occur if the individual is exhibiting high cognitive anxiety e.A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer timberdesignmag.com computers have the ability to follow generalized sets of operations, called programs.
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