This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. August Learn how and when to remove this template message An application layer is an abstraction layer that specifies the shared communications protocols and interface methods used by hosts in a communications network.
July 31, Content info: High-speed mobile access and cloud services are driving massive bandwidth demand from users.
Virtualization is changing the network, with application servers and many of the network functions themselves hosted in large data centers.
These developments are pushing the industry to deliver lower costs and greater bandwidths. The optical module and components industry has responded to these demands with G solutions that already cost less per gigabit than equivalent 10G and 40G solutions, and new developments to further drive down cost and increase bandwidths.
The keys to these G developments have been low-power and cost-effective 25G components, and smart assembly of optical modules either by using standard subassemblies with automated test, or by the use of silicon photonics or similar technologies.
The industry is already developing solutions including semiconductor and optical components, and optical modules for all of these applications.
The big question is, what is the right module for G? The first CFP8 modules are already available. Coherent technology developed for G long-haul networks is now enabling G, G and G connections in metro networks and between data centers. The market for data center interconnect DCI and metro networks is growing rapidly, with many systems vendors offering solutions in the all-important km reach.
For long-haul and metro applications, many equipment manufacturers are currently using in-house designs. That may change with the latest DSP and module developments, and with Ciena making its coherent technology available to three leading optical module vendors.
This is a market in flux. Several new players have recently entered the market with innovative semiconductor and optical components or new approaches to module manufacturing. Several vendors that are focused on supplying optical modules direct to service providers, and therefore shortening the supply chain, are now delivering on a wide range of G modules.
We are also seeing several Chinese vendors expanding their sales outside China and offering large product portfolios. Established players are responding to these challenges with highly integrated products and investments to deliver on the latest requirements. Silicon devices are critical for G systems and optical modules.
Transceiver and gearbox devices integrate support for the different modulation schemes. Laser driver and receiver arrays enable cost-effective optical modules and packet-optical transport platform P-OTP devices integrate most of the functionality for G and G P-OTP systems on a single device.
The report includes not only granular information on the optical modules and components themselves - of interest to telecom equipment manufacturers, service providers, optical module vendors and semiconductor vendors - but also insights into how the overall market and ecosystem is developing - of interest to a wide audience, including investors.
The report evaluates and analyzes the products and strategies of 49 leading vendors in this rapidly growing market, including more than optical modules and almost semiconductor components. Global communications networks are changing dramatically.SONET (Synchronous Optical Network) is a standard for connecting fiber-optic transmission systems sold in North America only.
SONET was proposed by Bellcore in the mids and is now an ANSI standard. SONET defines interface standards at the physical layer of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) seven-layer model.
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SONET (Synchronous Optical Network) is a standard for connecting fiber-optic transmission systems sold in North America only. SONET was proposed by Bellcore in the mids and is now an ANSI standard.
SONET defines interface standards at the physical layer of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) seven-layer model.
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